Category Archives: Organic chemicals

Organic chemicals News

The main purpose of tert-butanol

1, often in place of n-butanol as a solvent coatings and pharmaceuticals. Used as an internal combustion engine fuel additives (to prevent carburetor icing) and anti-knock agent. As the alkylating intermediate raw materials and the production of t-butyl synthetic organic compounds, to produce methyl methacrylate, t-butyl phenol, tert-butylamine, etc., for the synthesis of drugs, perfumes. Tert-butanol dehydration can be prepared from 99.0 to 99.9% purity isobutene. Detergent as solvent extraction of drugs, pesticides, waxes with a solvent, a cellulose ester, industrial plastics and paint solvents, but also for the manufacture of denatured alcohol, spices, fruit essence and isobutylene.
2, solvent and chromatographic analysis of molecular weight determination with reference substances. In addition, often in place of n-butanol as a solvent coatings and pharmaceuticals.
3, used as a solvent, chromatography standard material.
4, for spices synthesis.
5, is used as an internal combustion engine fuel additives (to prevent carburetor icing) and anti-knock agent. As the alkylating intermediate raw materials and the production of t-butyl synthetic organic compounds, to produce methyl methacrylate, t-butyl phenol, tert-butylamine, etc., for the synthesis of drugs, perfumes.

Pivaloyl chloride MSDS

Chinese alias: 2,2 – dimethyl-propionyl chloride; trimethylammonium chloride; tert-amyl chloride; trimethyl acetyl chloride
Name: Pivaloyl chloride
English Name: 2,2-Dimethylpropanoyl chloride; Trimethylacetyl chloride
CAS No.: 3282-30-2
Formula: C5H9ClO
Linear Formula: (CH3) 3CCOCl
Molecular Weight: 120.58
Purity: ≥ 98.0%
No. MDL: MFCD00000709
Beilstein No.: 385668
EC Number: 221-921-6
2 Characters
Colorless oily liquid, soluble in common organic solvents, water and alkali decomposition, flammable
Three physical parameters
Density: 0.979g/mL (25 ℃)
Boiling point :105-106 ℃
Flash point: 19 ℃
Refractive index (n20 / D): 1.412 (lit.)
4 Hazard statement
Dangerous code: F, T +
Hazard Class :11 -14-22-26-34
Security Level :16-26-36 / 37/39-45
UN number: UN2438
Domestic hazardous chemicals No.: 81117
5 Safety Data
Hazard Symbols F; T Description
Risk Codes R11; R22; R23; R34 Description
Safety Description S16; S26; S28A; S36/37/39; S38; S45 Description
Transport Information UN 2438
6 Purpose
Pivaloyl chloride is a very important acylating agent, mainly used as pharmaceutical intermediates, as the main raw material for the preparation of amides and many drugs in lipid phenol; currently used hydroxylamine hydroxylamine benzyl benzyl penicillin and cephalosporins, cefazolin production oxazoline, double pivaloyl adrenaline and other drugs. It is also a lot to do with the production of pesticide intermediates, such Chloropivaloyl chloride.
Chemical synthesis for the protection of the amino group, while increasing the steric effect, the location of a particular product is easily obtained.

Triacetin basic information

MW: 218.2
EINECS: 203-051-9
Mol File : 102-76-1.mol
Vapor density : 7.52 (vs air)
FEMA: 2007
Refractive index : n25 / D 1.429-1.431 (lit.)
Flash Point : 300 ° F
Water Solubility : 64.0 g / L (20 º C)
Merck: 9589
Stability :. Stable Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents Combustible..
NIST Chemistry :1,2,3-Propanetriol, triacetate (102-76-1)
EPA Substance :1,2,3-Propanetriol, triacetate (102-76-1)
3 Chemical Properties
Colorless , odorless , oily liquid. Unlike most alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform and other organic solvents , soluble in acetone , insoluble in mineral oil. Slightly soluble in water. Solubility in water at 25 ℃ to 5.9g/100ml. [ 1 ] is dissolved in alcohol, ether , benzene , chloroform , and castor oil, linseed oil , but do not dissolve . Can dissolve cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate , acrylic resin, polyvinyl acetate, and the like. Natural rosins have dissolved to a certain extent , but not with a polyvinyl chloride , polystyrene, chlorinated rubber mixture.
4 Edit Content Analysis
Accurately weighed sample of about 1g, release an appropriate pressure bottle , plus 1mol / L. Potassium hydroxide solution and isopropanol 25.0ml 15ml, Gasser , put in with the cloth wrapped in a canvas bag . Release a 98 ℃ ± 2 ℃ in a water bath heated 1h, bath water level should be slightly higher than the level of the bottle . Remove the bottle from the bag , the air cooled to room temperature , loosen the cloth and cork the bottle to release excess pressure , then the cloth removed. Add phenolphthalein test solution (TS-167) 6 ~ 8 drops of 0.5mol / L sulfuric acid titration of excess base to pink just disappears. While the blank test as above . Per milliliter 0.5mol / L sulfuric acid equivalent glycerol triacetate (C9H14O6) 36.37mg.
5 Uses Edit
1 , used as a plasticizer and spices fixative , ink solvents , also used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and dyes.
2, used as chromatographic stationary phase, solvent , plasticizer and spices fixative .
3 , moisturizers ; carrier solvent ; plasticizers ; absorb carbon dioxide from the natural gas . According to the provisions of GB 2760 ~ 96 prospective for spices.
Use as a cigarette filter and perfume fixative binder , solvent, plasticizer . And can be used in cosmetics , casting , pharmaceuticals, dyes and other industries. This product is non-toxic, non-irritating .
4, the fixing agent as perfumes , solvents , toughening. Used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and the production of dyes , used as a plasticizer , such as cigarette filter tips .
6 allow residues of the standard editing
Foods with spices : spices used in the preparation of each flavor component in GB 2760 may not exceed the maximum allowed amount and the maximum allowable residues .
Gum candy
Candy gum base agent material : according to production needs appropriate use ( except for special provisions ) .
7 Production Method Editor
1 , by the esterification of glycerol with acetic acid . Preheated to 50-60 ℃ glycerol , acetic acid , benzene and sulfuric acid. Was heated with stirring to reflux dehydration, after the recovery of benzene , was added acetic anhydride was heated 4h. After cooling, neutralized with 5 % sodium carbonate to pH 7 , layer of water , crude oil was dried with calcium chloride . Vacuum distillation , collecting 128-131 ℃ (0.93kPa) fractions, namely glycerol triacetate .
2 , followed by the hot acetic anhydride and purified by vacuum distillation glycerol derived .
8 Safety Information Editor
Safety Instructions :23 -24/ 25
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS No. : AK3675000
HS CODE: 29153930
Toxicity : ADI does not make special provisions (FAO / WHO, 2001).
GR.AS (FDA, § 182.1901,2000).
LD50 3000mg/kg ( rat, oral ) .
Use limit : FEMA (mg / kg): Soft drinks 190 ; cold 60 ~ 2000 ; candy 560 ; bakery products 1000 ; gum 4100 .

thiourea Precautions

Health hazards: a toxic effect is small, can inhibit thyroid function and blood-forming organs when repeated effect. Can cause allergic reactions . Can be absorbed through the skin . The product dust eye and upper respiratory tract irritation after inhalation cause coughing, chest discomfort. Oral stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic effects: long-term exposure , headache , drowsiness , weakness , pale, puffy face , reduced basal metabolism , blood pressure, pulse rate slows, leukopenia. Damage to the skin , itchy skin , palms sweating , dermatitis, chapped .
Environmental hazards : hazard to the environment .
Explosion hazard: The product is flammable , toxic , irritating. [ 2 ]
First aid measures
Skin contact: Remove contaminated clothing, use soap and water thoroughly washed skin.
Eye contact: Did eyelid, mobile water or saline. Doctor.
Inhalation : rapidly from the scene to fresh air. Keep the airway patency. If breathing is difficult , give oxygen. If not breathing , give artificial respiration immediately. Doctor.
Ingestion : drink plenty of water, induce vomiting . Doctor. [ 2 ]
Fire-fighting measures
Hazardous combustion products: nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides.
Fire fighting methods : the use of water, foam, carbon dioxide, sand fire. [ 2 ]
Spill response
Emergency treatment: isolation leak contaminated areas, restricting access. Cut off the fire source . Recommended emergency personnel wearing a dust mask ( full cover ) , wearing overalls general operations . Do not direct contact with leakage.
A small leak: clean shovel collection in a dry, clean, covered containers.
Large Leak: recycling or collection shipped to the waste disposal sites. [ 2 ]
Handling and storage
Handling Precautions : closed operation, local exhaust ventilation. The operator must go through specialized training , strict adherence to rules . Proposed operators wear self-absorption filter respirators , wearing chemical protective safety glasses, wear rubber gloves. Away from fire , heat, workplace smoking . Use explosion-proof ventilation systems and equipment. Avoid generating dust . Avoid contact with oxidizing agents , acids touch. Handling of light when light unloading , packaging and containers to prevent damage . Corresponding with the variety and quantity of fire equipment and emergency equipment leakage . Empty containers may be harmful residues .
Storage: Store in a cool , ventilated warehouse. Keep away from fire and heat. Packing seal. Should oxidants , acids, food chemicals stored separately and avoid mixing reservoir. Corresponding with the variety and quantity of fire equipment . Storage areas should be equipped with suitable material spill . [ 2 ]
Security terms
Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.
Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets .
Risk Phrases
Harmful if swallowed .
There are few reports of carcinogenic effects.
Toxic to aquatic organisms , may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
There is a danger of injury to the fetus .

Tert- butanol nature

Physical Data
Boiling Point (º C, 101.3kPa): 82.42
Melting point (º C): 25.7
Relative density (g / mL, 20/4 º C): 0.775
Refractive index (n20 º C): 1.3878
Viscosity (mPa · s, 30 º C): 3.35
Flash Point (º C, open ) : 11
Flash point (º C): 450 ~ 500
Evaporation heat (KJ / kg, b.p.): 546.3
Melting heat (KJ / kg): 91.6
Heat of combustion (KJ / kg): 35540
Specific heat capacity (KJ / (kg · K), 27 º C, constant pressure ) : 3.04
Critical temperature (º C): 236
Critical pressure (MPa): 3.972
Boiling point rise in constant: 8.37
Conductivity (S / m): 2.9 × 10-7
Lower explosive limit (%, V / V): 2.35
Upper explosive limit (%, V / V): 8
Vapor pressure (kPa, 20 º C): 4.08
Expansion coefficient (K-1, 20 º C): 0.00133
Solubility: miscible with many organic solvents , water, alcohols , esters , ethers , aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and the like. Soluble in most organic solvents , such as alcohols , esters , ketones , aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Temperature refractive index (n25): 1.382330
The relative density (25 ℃, 4 ℃): 0.775730
The relative density (20 ℃, 4 ℃): 0.7866d
Critical density (g · cm-3): 0.270
Critical volume (cm3 · mol-1): 275
Critical compressibility factor : 0.259
Eccentric Factor: 0.616
Lennard-Jones parameters (A): 5.9095
Lennard-Jones parameters (K): 334.79
Solubility parameter (J · cm-3) 0.5:21.492
vanderWaals area (cm2 · mol-1): 7.620 × 109
vanderWaals volume (cm3 · mol-1): 52.380
Vapor standard heat of combustion ( enthalpy ) (kJ · mol-1): 2690.77
Heat is generated by gas standards (enthalpy ) (kJ · mol-1): -312.42
Vapor standard entropy (J · mol-1 · K-1): 326.70
Vapor standard free energy (kJ · mol-1): -177.6
Vapor standard hot melt (J · mol-1 · K-1): 113.63
Liquid standard combustion heat ( enthalpy ) (kJ · mol-1): -2643.95
Liquid Standard claiming heat ( enthalpy ) (kJ · mol-1): -359.24
Liquid standard entropy (J · mol-1 · K-1): 192.88
Liquid standard free energy (kJ · mol-1): -184.68
Standard liquid melt (J · mol-1 · K-1): 218.6
Crystalline -phase standard combustion heat (enthalpy ) (kJ · mol-1): -2637.26
Standard claimed crystalline phase heat ( enthalpy ) (kJ · mol-1): -365.89
Crystalline phase standard entropy (J · mol-1 · K-1): 170.58
Crystalline phase standard free energy (kJ · mol-1): 184.68
Crystalline phase standard hot melt (J · mol-1 · K-1): 146.1

Polyacrylamide using features

1 , flocculation : PAM allows suspended material by charge neutralization , bridging adsorption, flocculation effect .
2 , the adhesive : through mechanical, physical, chemical action , since the adhesion effect.
3 , lowering resistance : PAM can effectively reduce fluid friction , water with traces of PAM can be 50-80% reduction in resistance .
4 , thickening: PAM thickening effect in neutral and acid conditions, when the PH value above 10 PAM easily hydrolyzed . When a semi- mesh structure , thickening more obvious.
Polyacrylamide usage instructions
1 , the number of washing with the use of cationic polyacrylamide can be set from 30 kg to one hundred and ten kilograms ; wastewater usage of the chemical industry is generally between fifty to one hundred and twenty kilograms ; dyeing industry wastewater and paper industry wastewater difficult to deal with , should increase the number used to set the number to use in one hundred to three hundred kilograms more reasonable , electroplating wastewater industry and general industrial water is generally not more than fifty kilograms . Note : ( number of industries are using this number several thousand tons of wastewater each ) .
2 , sewage treatment methods depending on Desliming flocculant used is not the same .
If the process the body uses biochemical methods , that is, sludge dewatering ( probably containing some early silt ) , just as sludge dewatering agent cationic PAM can .
If the process the body uses physical methods, such as an enhanced loading magnetic separation process, the general is to add PAC quenched , then add the anionic flocculant , and finally add cationic flocculant dehydration. Specific dosage should be based on effluent quality .
There are many sewage treatment station , sludge dewatering added directly PAC or other inorganic flocculants can be, in this frame filter, especially electronics factory or a small sewage treatment plant used widely.
When PAM sludge dehydrating agent as generally used in a ratio of 0.1% water – 0.2 %. Dissolved into a glue -like liquid in the future , then vote added to the sludge mixed treatment .
And sludge ratio is generally 5% – 10% , and some less , this should be determined according to the concentration of the sludge , it is best to determine the optimal dosage and usage models beaker through field experiments . Different sludge, different agents , the treatment effect of different equipment, different management levels , the sludge is different.
3, the sewage treatment plant with a cationic polyacrylamide as sewage sludge dewatering operations agent . In the process , and customer communication , customers often asked in the process of wastewater treatment sludge dewatering , sludge dewatering agent dosage problems. To know the exact opposite sludge dewatering agent dosage , first of all understand these parameters , the moisture content of the sludge , mud cake moisture content , into the mud , into the amount of drugs, pharmaceuticals concentration.
Sludge moisture content: the percentage of moisture contained in the sludge and sludge than the weight of the total weight of the moisture content of the sludge is called .
Cake moisture content : The percentage off the sludge cake that is contained in the water weight and the ratio of the total weight of the sludge cake moisture content is called .
But also through the following formula for computing
1 dosage mg / L = Dosing Quality / Water treatment / dispensing concentration
2 , treated water dosing dose = treated water m3 / h * dosage g/m3
3 , the amount of dry sludge treated water * = [ (1 - sludge moisture content ) / (1 - cake moisture content ) ]
4 , pharmaceutical consumption per ton of dry clay dosage g/m3 = / dry mud
The above result of the calculation error may be relatively large , only made ​​with reference to water running. The actual amount of consumption of the drug you want to actually test machine operators

Use Pivalic acid

Application of pesticides
So, for the synthesis of acetate or acetone pinacolone can be synthesized in a variety of new pesticides, fungicides , plant growth regulators and pesticides , such as triazole alcohol, benzyl chloride triadimenol , triadimefon ( triadimefon ) , MET double oxacillin alcohol , effects azole , allyl trazodone , tebuconazole , sprout inhibition azole , shrink strains azole Fortunately, trazodone and so on. These products have high efficiency , low toxicity , uptake , broad-spectrum , with less Vinca and other characteristics of rice, wheat , soybeans , fruit, vegetables and other crops with resistance to plant diseases and insect pests , such as lodging has good control effect .
Application of medicine
Pivaloyl chloride production furosemide ampicillin , double-effect material pivaloyl adrenal table can be used for the production of ampicillin , amoxicillin , cefazolin , and other semi-synthetic antibiotics. Pivalate prepared with prednisone good solubility , high efficacy , side effects, can be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Benzoyl pivalate capillaries increase the stability , for the treatment of tuberculosis. Pivalate prepared fluorometholone , used as an ointment for treating psoriasis of the active ingredient .
Application areas initiator agent
Pivalic acid chloride is reacted with t-butyl peroxide , sodium peroxide, t -butyl ester generated can produce free radicals , may be as low temperature -50 ℃, high efficiency , short induction period, the short cycle characteristics. In addition, use it as efficient initiator, polymers produced good thermal stability, good electrical properties , non-toxic , with a large and good linearity , etc. in the structure of the molecular weight of the product can be used as food packaging bags.
By Nippon Oil & Fats Co., Ltd. A novel pivalate peroxide initiator , t-hexyl peroxide Kit pivaloyl (HPP), which is the initiator efficiency , has no toxicity , low activity and other characteristics. And by its high peroxide initiator di – compound ( 2 -ethyl) hexyl acrylate with an initiator system consisting of a suspension of PVC in the production of a number of advantages : to reduce the polymerization time , the reaction heat uniformly to facilitate the process operation ; product particle morphology is good, “fish eyes” small, narrow molecular weight distribution, good quality products.
Pivalate for synthesis triggered there is great potential agents , should increase research efforts.
Application of coatings
Pivalic acid obtained by the initiator produced polyacrylate coating agent as compared with the conventional initiators obtained by selecting the specific structure of such an initiator and a chain transfer agent, a high solids synthetic hinge polyacrylate paint showed a higher gloss and gloss retention in aging experiments.
Shell Oil Company can be reported pivalic preparing epoxy powder coating treatment agent. Such a treatment agent with the powder coating with excellent color and luster and easy hydrolysis durable.
Other Applications
Pivalate having a resistance to hydrolysis and aroma , fragrance soap used as shampoos . Such as n-propyl pivalate with fruit, especially n-amyl valerate with orchid flavor, especially valerate with citrus flavor. Allyl pivalate can be used in the manufacture of hair gel . Pivalic acid esters of polyethylene glycol used as a truck ‘s brake oil, its lithium salt used as an engine fuel additive to increase the octane number . With a special acid as photosensitive materials coupler, with consumption of a small amount of silver , which will help thinning the layer to improve film clarity, the coupling reaction speed and other characteristics. In addition , special acid extraction agent also used metal , wood preservatives , etc., is widely used.

The main purpose of pentaerythritol

Pentaerythritol is mainly used in the coatings industry , alkyd resin coatings can be used to manufacture , enabling the hardness , gloss and durability of the paint film can be improved. It is also used as a raw material needed for rosin resin paints , varnishes and printing inks , and system -drying , Yin Fang empty flammable paints and lubricants . Pentaerythritolfatty acid ester is a highly effective lubricant and PVC plasticizer , an epoxy derivative of the raw material is from the production of surfactants . Pentaerythritol easily form complexes with metal , but also as a water softener in the detergent formulation used . In addition, for pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other production .

Pentaerythritol molecules containing four equivalents of hydroxymethyl, a high degree of symmetry , it is often used as a polyfunctional compound is prepared to take the raw material . It can be prepared by the nitration of Pentaerythritol tetranitrate ( PETN , PETN), is a high explosive ; esterification available Pentaerythritoltriacrylate (PETA), used as a coating .
Used as a flame retardant adhesive , and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) with available intumescent flame retardant . Polyurethane crosslinker also used to provide a branched polyurethane inside .


HEXAMINE mainly used plastic resin and a curing agent , a catalyst and a blowing agent aminoplast , rubber vulcanization accelerator ( accelerator H), shrink and the like textile .
HEXAMINE organic synthesis of raw materials for the production of chloramphenicol in the pharmaceutical industry .
 HEXAMINE used as a disinfectant of the urinary system , which itself has no antibacterial effect on Gram-negative bacteria effectively . 20% of its solution for the treatment of underarm odor , sweaty feet , tinea and so on. It is mixed with sodium hydroxide and sodium phenoxide , the masks do phosgene absorber.
Used in the manufacture of pesticides . HEXAMINE with fuming nitric acid , can be obtained highly explosive RDX , referred to as RDX.
HEXAMINE also as determination of bismuth , indium , manganese , cobalt , thorium , platinum, magnesium production, lithium, copper , uranium , beryllium , tellurium , bromide, iodide, etc. reagents and chromatography reagents.
Military fuel is used .
As a curing agent for resins and plastics , rubber vulcanization accelerator ( accelerator H), textiles shrink agent , and the system for fungicides, explosives. When medicinal, acidic urine after oral administration in case of decomposition of formaldehyde into sterilization , used for mild urinary tract infection ; outside used to treat ringworm, antiperspirant , cure underarm odor . Mixed with caustic soda and sodium phenol for gas masks as phosgene absorber.

BHT (2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol)

BHT (2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol)
GB 1900-80 This standard applies to p-cresol – isobutanol as raw materials and concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst, alumina as a dehydrating agent, the reaction of a di-2.6 butyl-p-cresol. Used as an antioxidant in food processing.
MF: C15H24O MW: 220.36 (in 1977 the international atomic weight)
First, the technical requirements
1 Appearance: white crystal or crystalline powder.
2 2,6 – tert-butyl-p-cresol should meet the following requirements:
Index Name Index
Melting point, ℃ 69.0 ~ 70.0
Moisture,% ≤ 0.1
Burning residue,% ≤ 0.01
Sulfate (SO4 dollars),% ≤ 0.002
Heavy metals (as Pb),% ≤ 0.0004
Arsenic (As),% ≤ 0.0001
Free phenol (of p-cresol,)% ≤ 0.02