Monthly Archives: August 2018

Norwegian National Oil Company will drill up to 3,000 oil and gas wells in the coming decades

According to Dow Jones News on August 28, Norwegian national oil company Equinor said on Tuesday that the company will drill up to 3,000 oil and gas wells in the next few decades as the company plans to maintain lucrative oil and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf after 2030.

Statoil said in the announcement: “The company is currently in the process of achieving the current level of oil and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf by 2030.”

He said: “After 2030, the Norwegian continental shelf will enter a more mature stage. Therefore, new measures are needed to meet future challenges, including the increasing production of large oil and gas fields, the aging of facilities and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions.”

Benzalkonium chloride

Natural gas demand will grow the fastest in the next 30 years, and the increase will come from natural gas power generation.

According to the report of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, natural gas will be the fastest growing energy product in China in the next 30 years. By 2030, China’s natural gas demand will be nearly 520 billion cubic meters, and by 2050 it will exceed 800 billion cubic meters.

Benzalkonium chloride

At the 7th annual meeting of the Global Energy Security Think Tank Forum held in Beijing recently, the report “China Energy Outlook 2018~2050” issued by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences shows that under the joint effect of supply-side reform and economic growth path changes, In the next 30 years, China’s energy demand structure will undergo major changes. By 2050, coal will account for less than 40% of energy demand; by contrast, the share of natural gas demand will rise sharply and is expected to increase to more than 20%.

From the perspective of the application of natural gas, the report believes that the future increase in the power sector will come from natural gas power generation. Natural gas power generation will emerge from the current position as a peaking power source and become one of the main forms of power generation. It is estimated that natural gas power generation will reach about 335.1 billion kWh by 2020, about 582.2 billion kWh in 2030, and 1 trillion kWh in 2050. At the same time, natural gas power generation will also be used for heating, to some extent to make up for the decline in thermal power.

Experts said that the sharp increase in demand for natural gas in the future will also bring new issues to the field of energy security. Liu Qiang, secretary general of the Global Energy Security Think Tank Forum, said: “In the future, the main influencing factors of China’s energy security will come from natural gas, which requires us to seriously study the energy security of natural gas supply.”

Venezuela’s crude oil export volume to US in July fell below 500,000 barrels for the first time

Houston reported on August 26, according to Thomson Reuters statistics, Venezuela’s daily exports of crude oil to the United States in July fell to 494,400 barrels in the first three months, indicating the Venezuelan National Oil Company (CIS/PDVSA) Crude oil production is affected by the seizure of its assets.

Statistics show that July is the first month that Venezuela’s daily export volume of crude oil has fallen below 500,000 barrels since January to March this year.

US oil producer ConocoPhillips began to detain Citi’s overseas assets in May this year, trying to profit from a $2 billion arbitral award. ConocoPhillips’ legal action prevented CFO from entering most of its terminals in the Caribbean, thereby limiting the continued reduction of Citizen’s oil exports.

Most of Venezuela’s customers in the United States now receive less and less Venezuela. According to statistics, Venezuela had 30 ships of crude oil delivered to US ports in July, a decrease of 3 ships from June. The data shows that the volume of transactions in July was 12% lower than that in June and 22.5% from the same period last year.

The rise of the Russian fertilizer industry

Russia is the leading fertilizer producer in the world and one of the top five suppliers in the international market. In the next eight years, with the expansion of production capacity exceeding the growth rate of domestic consumption, fertilizer exports will continue to accelerate.

The main export products will be urea, potassium chloride and sulfur-containing ternary fertilizers. The upgrading and expansion of the equipment will increase the ability to supply the international market, and Russian producers have sufficient phosphate resources, and they have the ability to take advantage of the growing The global compound fertilizer market.

According to the National Bureau of Statistics of the Russian Federation, the compound fertilizer growth rate of Russian fertilizer production in 2010-2017 was 3.35%. In 2017, the chemical fertilizer production reached 22.5 million tons of nutrients, most of which have already been exported.

The fertilizer industry development plan adopted by the Russian government at the end of March requires that by 2025, fertilizer production will increase by 5.5 million tons (compared with an average annual growth rate of 2.76%), which means that exports will further increase.

Nitrogen production is expected to increase from 10 million tons last year to 12.3 million tons by 2025; production of phosphate (P2O5) and potash (K2O) is expected to increase from 3.9 million tons and 8.6 million tons in 2017 to 4 million, respectively. Tons and 11.7 million tons.

The continuous increase in production over the past seven years has led to an increase in exports. In 2010-2017, the compound annual growth rate of chemical fertilizer exports was 3.02%, reaching 34.3 million tons. In 2017, exports of potassium chloride accounted for 32% of total exports, and exports of urea and ammonium nitrate accounted for 19% and 10% of total exports. Compound fertilizers and ammonium phosphate exports accounted for 17% and 10% of total exports.

Bacillus thuringiensis

Russia’s urea production has grown steadily over the past seven years due to upgrades to existing facilities and the commissioning of new installations. From 2010 to 2017, Russia built two urea plants and three large-particle urea plants. Eurochem’s second large-grain urea production line in Novomoskovsk was commissioned in 2010. Phosagro commissioned a 495,000 tonne/year pellet urea plant and a 500,000 tonne/year large particle urea plant in Cherepovets in 2012 and 2017 respectively. In 2012, Acron built a 335,000 tonne/year urea plant in its Veliky Novgorod. In 2015, Acron built a 717,000 tonne/year large particle urea plant near the original ammonium nitrate plant.

In the past seven years, most of the urea plants in Russia have been operating close to capacity or slightly above capacity. However, by 2017, Togliattiazot used only one of its two sets of 480,000 tonne/year urea plants. The company resumed production of a second production line last year. As a result, production increased from 552,200 tons in 2016 to a maximum of 720,200 tons in the past six years.

Russian companies plan to significantly expand urea capacity in the next few years. Acron expects to build a 600 ton/day urea plant in Veliky Novgorod in the summer of 2018, the company’s sixth urea plant, and is upgrading its existing production line. After the project was put into operation, the plant has a total capacity of 3,650 tons/day. Methanol producer Metafrax plans to start construction of a synthetic ammonia-urea-melamine co-production unit in Perm Krai this year, with a urea capacity of 56.2 tons/day. Togliattiazot has secured a loan this year for the construction of a third urea plant with a capacity of 2,200 tons per day; the plant is scheduled to go into production in 2020. Uralchem ​​plans to complete the technical transformation of the Perm plant in 2019, increasing its capacity by 254,000 tons per year. Eurochem also expands urea production at its Nevinnomyssk plant. By 2025, Russia’s urea capacity is expected to increase by more than 1.8 million tons / year.

In recent years, Russia has also proposed some urea projects, but the financing has not yet been completed. For example, Kuibyshevazot announced in July 2017 that it has formed a joint venture with MaireTecnimont to develop a new 1500 tonne/day urea project in Togliatti. Ammoni is also considering the second phase of the project “Ammoni -2″, which signed a preliminary agreement with the parties including Russian oil company Tatneft in February 2016.

The increase in production will boost Russian urea exports. Russian farmers’ demand for urea is growing, but it is still low compared to ammonium nitrate; according to the Russian Fertilizer Producers Association (RAPU), urea consumed to local farmers last year was 293,500 tons, compared to 22.37 tons in 2016. . Delivery to industrial buyers also showed slow growth; shipments in 2017 increased from 887,300 tons in 2016 to 889,500 tons.

Benzalkonium chloride

Improve the utilization efficiency of aluminum resources and develop China’s aluminum recycling industry

Since the beginning of the new century, in order to further make up for the shortage of mineral resources in China, the tension between supply and demand has been alleviated. Under the guidance of a series of national support and regulation of industrial development policies, China’s renewable metal industry has made full use of international resources to develop rapidly, and the proportion of trade accounts for global non-ferrous metal scrap. More than half of the countries or regions that have allocated resources across the country have reached more than 80. The cumulative import of copper and aluminum scrap has exceeded 100 million tons, and nearly 70 million tons of recycled non-ferrous metal products have been produced. Among them, the recycled copper produced by the use of imported copper-containing scrap accounts for more than 70% of the total; the recycled aluminum produced by the imported aluminum-containing waste accounts for nearly 55% of the total. It has realized the goal of rapid utilization of international non-ferrous metal scrap resources to expand China’s renewable non-ferrous metal industry, and made positive contributions to the non-ferrous metal materials to meet the needs of economic and social development.

Since last year, the state has further strengthened the construction of ecological civilization, completely banned the entry of foreign garbage, and promoted the reform of the import management system for solid waste. Recently, the Sino-US trade war has restricted the import of aluminum alloy scrap, which has seriously affected enterprises that have long relied on imported waste for production. . Faced with these challenges, we should recognize the supply pattern of the domestic aluminum scrap market, improve the efficiency of resource utilization, eliminate the impact of trade wars, clear the blurred line of sight, and recover the missing and wasted resources. Many aluminum scrap resources quickly returned to the production enterprises, making China’s recycled aluminum industry shift from import-led development to self-sufficiency and healthy development.

Aluminum scrap market

Aluminum can be recycled indefinitely, and the energy required to recover aluminum is about 95% lower than that of producing primary aluminum, reducing emissions by more than 90%. Since its production began in 1888, aluminum has produced about 1 billion tons, of which 75% are still being recycled. Since aluminum is processed into consumer or industrial products according to market needs, aluminum scrap is composed of two new waste forms: “new” and “old”. Aluminum produces new waste during the forging and casting of products, recycling old waste from end-of-life products or all types of waste products. There is also a dregs (aluminum ash) that is often overlooked and that is less important.

Due to the high economic value of aluminum, the recovery rate of aluminum has been very high. The recovery rate of aluminum in the construction and transportation and packaging industries is up to 95%, and the recycling of foil in the packaging industry is also increasing. In 2017, the global total aluminum output was 94.848 million tons, of which 30,866,000 tons of metal aluminum (recycled aluminum or secondary aluminum) was used for waste production, accounting for 32.7%, and alumina production (primary aluminum) was 63.826 million tons, accounting for 67.3%.

Global production and growth trends of primary and recycled aluminum

Obviously, countries with high aluminum consumption are also the countries with the largest amount of aluminum scrap. At present, the world’s aluminum scrap is mainly concentrated in the three regions of the United States, the European Union and China; a large part of high-quality waste in Europe and America is recycled internally to make new aluminum. Due to the relatively short service life of packaging and automobiles, the recycling rate and recycling rate of scraps are fast. Therefore, the excess is exported. In the past, China was the main importer of aluminum scraps for broken cars in Europe and America.

The United States is the region with the longest history of aluminum production and consumption, and the world’s most abundant aluminum scrap resource. In addition to meeting the waste required for secondary aluminum production in China, it also exports 2 million tons of waste every year, accounting for one-third of the total global waste supply. In 2016, the total consumption of metal aluminum in the United States was 9.538 million tons, of which 5.325 million tons of recycled aluminum, accounting for 55.8% of total aluminum metal consumption. In 2016, the United States produced 6.508 million tons of recycled aluminum. Among them, the use of new waste production of 1.972 million tons, accounting for 30.3%, the use of old waste production of 4.536 million tons, accounting for 69.7%.

The EU – accounting for more than 15% of global aluminum consumption, aluminum consumption is mainly concentrated in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, which is the location of the world’s largest car manufacturer, the development of the global aluminum industry to a large extent Depends on this market. In 2016, the total consumption of metal aluminum in the EU was 10.231 million tons, of which 4.62 million tons were recycled aluminum, accounting for 44.8% of the total metal consumption. In 2016, the EU produced 5.288 million tons of recycled aluminum. Among them, the use of new waste production of 1.767 million tons, accounting for 33.4%, the use of old waste production of 3.521 million tons, accounting for 66.6%.

China – is the world’s largest aluminum producer. Since 2001, aluminum production has been ranked first in the world. In 2016, primary aluminum production accounted for 54.4% of the world’s total, and aluminum consumption totaled 42.518 million tons, including 0.952 million tons of recycled aluminum. , accounting for 23.4% of total metal consumption. In 2016, China produced 8.507 million tons of recycled aluminum. Among them, the use of old waste production of 3.06 million tons, accounting for 36%, the use of new waste production of 5.45 million tons, accounting for 64%.

Neglected and forgotten facts

As China’s metal aluminum deposits continue to increase, China’s aluminum alloy scrap production is also growing. From 2001 to 2016 alone, China has produced 230 million tons of electrolytic aluminum, with a per capita consumption of 24 kilograms and a per capita reserve of 130 kilograms. The import volume of aluminum alloy scrap decreased from 2.85 million tons in 2010 to 1.92 million tons in 2016, and the import volume was less than 30% of the total waste supply of 7.45 million tons.

Although the import of waste has been decreasing year by year, some cases have been neglected. That is, China has entered the peak period of scrapping of aluminum since 2010. It is currently the fastest period of waste growth, in which forged aluminum alloy waste accounts for more than 60%. Aluminum alloy waste accounts for about 30%, and the total amount exceeds 10 million tons. In theory, China no longer needs to import ordinary waste aluminum alloy scraps at this stage for replenishment. However, the actual situation is that there is no separation between the old and new waste production modes in China, and a large amount of deformed aluminum alloy waste and new waste are used as waste. The diluted aluminum alloy is produced into a common cast aluminum alloy ingot. This has contributed to the continuous expansion of the production capacity of cast aluminum alloys and the import of waste aluminum alloy materials. Obviously, if the deformed aluminum alloy scrap has an advanced and standardized circulation system, it is an indisputable fact that it is impossible to produce ordinary cast aluminum alloy by using the raw aluminum as the waste material of the waste aluminum.

Sodium Molybdate

Aluminum produces slag during smelting, processing and recycling. In 2017, China’s aluminum slag is estimated to be more than 4.2 million tons, of which the metal aluminum content exceeds 2.2 million tons. If processed by international advanced technology, 98% (2.156 million tons) of aluminum can be recycled, and the remaining oxides 100% (2.044 million tons) can be converted into green industrial raw materials for recycling. At present, the domestic technology is backward, the recovery rate of aluminum is less than 55%, and the technology of harmless resource treatment of oxides is still blank. That is to say, in 2017, only 2.2 million tons of aluminum was recovered in China’s 4.2 million tons of aluminum slag, with 990,000. Tons of aluminum have become oxides, and the total amount of hazardous waste has increased by 2.99 million tons from 2 million tons. According to the estimated 15,000 tons of aluminum, the direct loss of the whole industry is 15 billion yuan. This is the second important fact that has long been ignored by Chinese aluminum industry companies.

The impact of the trade war

In 2017, China imported about 820,000 tons of aluminum scrap from the United States, accounting for 50% of China’s total aluminum scrap imports, accounting for 52% of total US exports.

Obviously, the Sino-US trade war will not pose a threat to the development of China’s recycled aluminum industry. As long as China’s resource efficiency is increased by 2%, it will be enough to replace the quantity imported from the United States. Therefore, the current outstanding problem in China’s aluminum industry is resource efficiency, and the core is the issue of technological innovation to enhance competitiveness.

Challenges to improve resource efficiency

Minimize the recycling of scrap aluminum and aluminum-containing scrap for recycling.

Automated mechanized pretreatment classification technology, advanced crushing and separation technology, and made it widely available.

Advanced process control technology that optimizes the processing of elements and residues that are not suitable for reuse in recycled aluminum.


Expand the number of available aluminum alloys, adapt to more aluminum scraps and directly produce them into products, and perform well in high quality and high added value.

Improve resource efficiency to achieve regenerative recycling, such as the use of hot extrusion technology to separate contaminated or mixed with the casting alloy, that is, mechanical separation using the difference between forged and cast aluminum alloy solidus temperature. Since the cast alloy has a higher alloying element content and the solidus temperature is lower than that of the wrought alloy, the mixture of the forged and foundry waste is heated to a temperature lower than the eutectic temperature, and then the forged alloy is separated by centrifugal force. The alloy element concentration is measured by a combination of techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and X-ray transmission (XRT), and the wrought alloys having different compositions are separately separated and then melted.

Improve resource efficiency and optimize process technology to further reduce energy consumption and melt loss, reduce emissions, extend furnace life and improve alloy quality. For example, by improving the melting technique to eliminate the residual elements Fe, Sn, Mn and Cu, etc., these elements are detrimental to mechanical properties, and removal requires the addition of certain alloying elements to neutralize, which requires more research to improve the knowledge of recycling techniques. The manufacturing process of the new alloy also needs to be optimized accordingly. Research is needed on the basis of the process to better understand the physical phenomena that occur during melting, solidification and recycling, thus creating a knowledge base for aluminum producers to better control their processes, including the following:

- Continue to develop methods for recovering aluminum scrap from as many products as possible.

- Strategies should be adopted for the most cost-effective remelting process, including the promotion of the separation of unwanted elements such as Fe, Ni technology.

- Alternative products, such as Al-Fe deoxidizers, should be developed to take advantage of recycled aluminum parts that cannot be cost-effectively used to produce new aluminum alloys.

- New aluminum alloys designed for direct application to recycled aluminum should be carefully considered and studied.

- A study should be conducted to explore the potential for increasing the amount of alloys that can be used for direct recovery. The study should more accurately identify the current and future sources of recycled metal content and the expected composition range.

Improve resource efficiency and realize the harmlessness and resource utilization of slag. Aluminum slag, aluminum ash, salt and compound alumina can be completely recovered by using advanced technology and recycled as non-toxic materials. At present, aluminum slag has been banned in the United States, Canada and Europe. The treatment of aluminum slag has a considerable economic effect and directly affects the profitability of the enterprise. The measures that should be taken currently include the following:

- Optimize the process to prevent oxidation of the aluminum slag.

—— Shorten the transportation distance of aluminum slag, quickly close the cooling and prevent oxidation loss.

- Treat aluminum slag under the protection of salt.

—— Establish a salt residue disposal system to stabilize the recovery rate of aluminum above 98%, salt can be recycled indefinitely, and green inert alumina can enter the downstream industry.

In short, there is considerable room for improvement in the resource efficiency of aluminum recycling in China. The focus of innovation is to increase the value of aluminum scrap, reduce degradation and dilution, expand the ability to melt different types of waste, and establish and improve the slag treatment system. As long as these measures are in place, the losses recovered are immeasurable, which is of great significance for saving resources and protecting the ecological environment, improving the competitiveness of aluminum industry enterprises, and promoting the healthy development of China’s recycled aluminum industry.

Benzalkonium chloride


Bottlenecks and pain points of China’s LNG development

Liquefied natural gas (LNG), as the most clean and low-temperature liquid low-carbon fossil energy source in the fossil energy system, has developed rapidly in China in the past decade and has gradually formed a complete system of LNG industry chain with Chinese characteristics for the future of China’s LNG industry. The chain is healthier and more sustainable, and it is very valuable to think deeply and reflect on previous development history and processes.

Integrated station pipeline gas-fired power plant integrated layout mode

Guangdong LNG is China’s first LNG receiving station. As an operator, BP has led the planning and design of the main framework of Guangdong LNG industry chain. The core main line of Guangdong LNG industry chain is the integrated layout mode of the receiving station pipeline gas-fired power plant, that is, the receiving station, pipeline and gas-fired power plant are simultaneously planned, constructed and put into operation at the same time. The practice of more than ten years proves that this mode is very successful and effective. . Although the urban gas user group, the industrial user group, and the vehicle-shipping user group are the base users of LNG, it is difficult to ensure the LNG receiving station as soon as the single user consumes less, disperses, and develops the amount of time. To achieve the design scale, only the gas-fired power plants and receiving stations with large gas consumption will be put into production at the same time for strategic coordination, so as to ensure the fulfillment of the LNG long-term contract and the function and efficiency of the LNG main industrial chain infrastructure.

Fujian LNG industry chain adheres to this strategic planning concept and develops very well. LNG receiving stations lacking coordinated gas-fired power plants or pipelines will experience several years of slow market development after commissioning, and bear losses and difficulties. . The author suggests that the new LNG receiving station will continue to adhere to this strategic planning concept as the best policy.

Receiving station pipeline equity diversification company formation model

Guangdong LNG shareholders were jointly established by CNOOC, BP, Shenzhen Gas, Hong Kong Hong Kong and China Gas, Guangzhou Gas, Dongguan Gas, Foshan Gas, Shenzhen Energy, Yudean and other upstream and downstream industrial chains, and adhered to the concept of equity diversification . LNG receiving stations and pipelines are the infrastructure bearers of the interest community in the industry chain. Shareholders play their own unique advantages in resources, engineering, market, capital, etc., and think about it, and make efforts to ensure the LNG industry chain logistics. Cash flow and smooth flow of information, Guangdong LNG development is very healthy, profitability is very good, and shareholders are very satisfied. This company’s formation model has enabled Guangdong LNG to be organically integrated into the local regional economy, with strong support from the government, users and the general public. Later, some LNG receiving stations abandoned the company’s formation model and even embarked on the sole proprietorship. It was quite difficult to develop in the initial stage of production. The author suggests that the new LNG receiving station should adhere to the diversification of equity, the formation of a community of interests, and effective integration into the local economy.

LNG receiving station location and scale strategic layout mode

For any coastal city with a coastline, waterways, ports, etc. are precious scarce resources that can be used less when used less. The inadequacy of Guangdong LNG strategic planning is that it is not expected that the development speed of LNG will be so fast. There can only be five LNG storage tanks in the layout of the mountain, which severely limits the development space of Guangdong LNG. If Guangdong LNG is based on a 30 million With the planning of the receiving station, the entire Diefu Valley is planned as a LNG storage tank group, which can fully meet the demand and leave the valuable coastline to develop the yacht dock better and more scientific. The current status quo is to build four LNG receiving stations of the same nature in Shenzhen’s precious coastline. The same nature is repelled. This is the basic principle. It is a great waste to the navigation channel, port, land, investment, and personnel. In the off-season, everyone’s days will not be better.

A coastal prefecture-level city to build an LNG receiving station, the state should clearly stipulate that only one LNG receiving station can be built. If the 10 million tons is not enough, it can be planned according to 2000 to 30 million tons, as long as the LNG receiving station tank area The planning of the gasification unit is large enough, and land reclamation is also possible. The author proposes to accept the planning defects of the LNG scale in Guangdong. The city that builds the LNG receiving station can only plan according to a large LNG receiving station, reducing the occupation and damage to the coastline, avoiding vicious competition between multiple receiving stations, and increasing the receiving station. Living space and profitability. Everyone wants to invest, and can diversify their equity and jointly invest in construction.

LNG low-cost purchase and low-cost asset mergers and acquisitions

China’s LNG development in the past decade has experienced low-cost purchases from oversupply of Guangdong LNG. The slope and constant of the long association are very beneficial to the buyer, and the shareholding is upstream. The price of the ceiling and the floor price are favorable to both buyers and sellers. In the history of LNG development in the world, very good low-cost purchases of long-term contracts. As the oil price rises, the LNG long-term negotiation is more and more favorable to the seller. The negotiator’s personal negotiation ability is stronger and the English level is higher. It is also impossible to obtain preferential terms for the buyer to purchase at a low price. More important than negotiation ability and foreign language level. Without the LNG long association, the construction of LNG receiving stations cannot be started. This management mode severely restricts the grasp of LNG low-cost purchase flexibility business opportunities. In fact, the construction of LNG purchase and receiving stations can be carried out separately.


More than one hundred dollars of high oil prices, China has also experienced and participated in the madness of high-priced purchases, but also tasted the bitter fruit of high-priced LNG, the best way to obtain overseas LNG resources with high oil prices is PetroChina (8.170, -0.01, -0.12%) The company itself invests in the exploration and development of overseas natural gas fields and invests in the construction of its own LNG plant. Unfortunately, China National Petroleum Corporation does not have enough LNG liquefaction plants invested by itself. Only China National Petroleum Corporation owns sufficient natural gas resources and LNG produced by liquefaction plants to obtain the initiative of LNG strategic development. The LNG price is controlled by the complete industrial chain. The high-margin upstream profit is available to Chinese oil companies, and the ability is moderately reduced. The selling price in China.

During the low oil price period, due to the high oil price and large-scale overseas oil and gas upstream asset acquisition and LNG long association purchase, the oil price dropped after the loss. In addition to the small-scale actions of individual companies, most of the Chinese oil companies missed the buying opportunity and did not have enough competitive. The gas source and the state control the smog, win the blue sky to defend the war and carry out strategic synergy. After the coal reformed to force last winter, a gas shortage was formed. With the development of underground gas storage, the author suggests that the oil price should be less than 50 US dollars/barrel as the Chinese LNG Changxu, the acquisition of overseas LNG gas field resources and the liquefaction plant asset strategic opportunity period, one is the low price range, and also as the Chinese coal reform In the period of strategic development of gas development, the second is that even if it is not used in the off-season, it must be firm and large-scale low-priced purchases and stored in gas storage. In addition to supporting low-cost purchases, the state can also use solid foreign exchange reserves and directly participate in low-cost purchases, which are far more valuable and more valuable than the purchase of US debt.

LNG Ocean Shipping Fleet

The national cargo national transport, the national shipbuilding state, is a very good LNG ocean transport development concept. China has already overcome the crown jewel of LNG ocean-going shipbuilding industry. For China’s energy imports, importing low-carbon and clean LNG is far better than importing crude oil with heavy carbon pollution. Increasingly large, more and more LNG ocean shipping vessels are needed. Only China’s own LNG ocean shipping fleet is the most reliable, especially when the world’s LNG carriers are tight. China’s steel production plants are numerous, labor resources are abundant, and the construction of a large number of large-scale LNG ocean-going vessels can help China’s economic growth, solve employment and increase Chinese taxation. The key is to ensure the safety and sufficient capacity of China’s LNG ocean transportation. The author suggests that, except for a few cases, LNG ocean transportation must adhere to the national product of national shipments, and the national shipbuilding state is the basic principle of the supremacy of national interests.

Land transportation of LNG and natural gas

Benzalkonium chloride

LNG is only a natural gas logistics form. There is no LNG pure industrial chain. In developed countries such as Europe, America and Japan, the main natural gas transportation channel is natural gas pipeline. Every LNG transport vehicle, every LNG satellite station and storage tank group is a source of dangerous chemical explosion. Except for LNG liquid transportation for vehicle and ship filling, the LW liquid peak load usage and land transportation volume are as small as possible, so as to be minimized. Social insecurity. The pipeline is buried deep underground, which is safer than LNG land transportation. As long as the natural gas pipeline is sufficiently dense enough to meet the natural gas transportation needs of each city, it can be reached by pressure natural gas, and the transportation volume is lower, the transportation cost is lower. The main peaking infrastructure of natural gas is large-scale natural gas underground gas storage and large-scale storage tanks of coastal LNG receiving stations, instead of urban LNG satellite stations and LNG storage tanks, urban gas merchants, large industrial users, gas power plants, etc. With its own peak-regulating gas demand, it can be invested in the underground gas storage and LNG large-scale receiving stations to obtain the peaking gas protection.

In remote towns and towns with small gas consumption, the transportation cost of paving pipeline units is too high. It is appropriate to construct LNG satellite stations. After the gas volume is used up, the pipelines are economical and can be converted into pipeline transportation. The author suggests that for urban and social security, it is necessary to increase the investment in natural gas pipeline construction, establish that the pipeline is the main transportation channel for natural gas, and LNG is the LNG and natural gas logistics transportation concept that assists transportation channels.

In summary, LNG will play an important role in adjusting China’s energy structure, adjusting China’s power structure, adjusting China’s transportation structure, managing smog, winning blue sky defense, and building beautiful China. Every effort is made to reduce LNG purchase and acquisition costs, scientifically plan LNG receiving stations, pipelines, gas-fired power plants and other infrastructure, establish China’s own LNG transportation fleet, mobilize the enthusiasm of the LNG industry chain, and work together to build a good LNG industrial chain. The community of interests is a correct conclusion that should be derived from the history of the development of China’s LNG industry chain.



Trade tensions intensified, international crude oil prices fell under pressure

Multiple factors have caused oil prices to fall in the near future: First, the escalation of trade frictions initiated by the United States has triggered concerns about the global economic slowdown and the impact on crude oil demand. Second, the monthly report of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) lowered its forecast for global crude oil demand next year. Third, the demand for crude oil in Asia has declined. Fourth, US crude oil inventories and production both increased, while refined oil and inventories also rose sharply.

Affected by the depreciation of emerging market currencies and trade tensions, the global economic outlook is uncertain and dragged down demand for crude oil, and international crude oil prices have fallen under pressure. Last week, New York West Texas Intermediate crude oil futures fell for the seventh consecutive week, down 2.7%, the longest losing streak since 2015; London North Sea Brent crude oil futures fell for the third consecutive week, a decline of 1.4%.

Benzalkonium chloride

The analysis believes that multiple factors have caused oil prices to fall under pressure: First, the escalation of trade frictions initiated by the United States has triggered concerns about the global economic slowdown and the impact on crude oil demand. Trade frictions have been putting pressure on the market in the past few months. Trade friction between the United States and China has made investors feel uneasy. Last week, the diplomatic relations between the United States and Turkey deteriorated, the high tariffs between the United States and Turkey, and the sovereign currency crisis in Turkey continued to ferment, raising international community concerns about the instability of emerging markets. Market risk aversion has risen sharply, and global stock markets and commodity markets have complained. If the situation in Turkey deteriorates further, it will threaten to exacerbate currency fluctuations and capital outflows in emerging market countries, further increasing the value of the US dollar and thus lowering oil prices.

Second, the monthly report of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) lowered its forecast for global crude oil demand next year. OPEC’s latest monthly report on the crude oil market shows that demand for OPEC crude oil is expected to be 32.05 million barrels per day in 2019, a decrease of 130,000 barrels per day from the previous month. In 2019, global crude oil demand growth is expected to be lowered to 1.43 million barrels per day, with a previous value of 1.45 million barrels per day. At the same time, the monthly report raised the daily average crude oil supply of non-OPEC countries by 30,000 barrels to 2.13 million barrels. The monthly report also showed that OPEC’s daily output increased by 41,000 barrels to 32.32 million barrels. Among them, Saudi Arabia’s oil production in July was 10.28 million barrels, a decrease of 200,000 barrels from June. Saudi Arabia said that the cut was mainly due to increased production by competitors, and Saudi Arabia hoped to avoid another oversupply.

Third, the demand for crude oil in Asia has declined. According to shipping data, the annualized growth rate of demand in China, India, Japan and South Korea has dropped from 3.5% in 2016 to around 2% today. Among them, China’s largest crude oil importer China and India’s imports in July fell by about 500,000 barrels from the January-June average of 12.4 million barrels per day. The market generally believes that if trade disputes and emerging market turmoil lead to further deterioration of the global economic outlook, Asian oil demand will continue to weaken.

Fourth, US crude oil inventories and production double growth, while refined oil and inventories also rose sharply, so oil prices fell sharply. According to the latest inventory report of the US Energy Information Administration, as of the week of August 10, US crude oil inventories unexpectedly increased by 6.8 million barrels to 414 million barrels, the largest weekly increase since the week of March 10, 2017. It is estimated to be reduced by 2.5 million barrels. More data showed that crude oil inventories increased by 1.64 million barrels last week, the largest increase since the week of April 6; refinery crude oil processing volume increased by 383,000 barrels per day to 17.89 million barrels per day, a record high. In addition, last week, US domestic crude oil production increased by 100,000 barrels to 10.9 million barrels per day.

Obviously, negative sentiment will continue to pervade, and international crude oil prices will remain weak and weak in the short term. But in the long run, the US government will fully resume sanctions against Iran and sharply squeeze Iranian crude oil exports, which will lead to further tightening of global supply. The international crude oil market price may be supported.

Libyan crude oil production exceeded 1 million barrels for the first time since the beginning of June

According to a report by Platts on August 14, Dubai, sources close to Libyan crude oil production said on Tuesday that Libyan crude oil production broke through the 1 million barrel mark for the first time since the beginning of June.

According to sources, the most new production comes mainly from the Sala Lada oil field, which increased its daily production of crude oil from 218,000 barrels last week to more than 250,000 barrels.

According to a recent survey by Standard & Poor’s Global Platts Consulting, the average daily production of crude oil in Libya fell to 670,000 barrels in July, the lowest level since April 2017.

The Sala Lada field is operated by the Libyan National Oil Company and an international consortium of French Total, Repsol, Statoil and the Austrian Oil and Gas Group. In the past few years, the Sarawaka oil field has been forced to close several times due to worker protests and attacks by the tribal militias on the export pipeline.

According to sources, the Sala Lada oil field consists of three production areas located in the southwestern part of the Myrzuk Basin. Earlier this month, two of the production areas resumed operations relatively quickly, with daily production increasing to around 200,000 barrels. However, the third producing area, the NC-186 producing area, presents a more difficult picture of safety.

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August 16 COMEX Copper Review

NEW YORK, August 16 news, COMEX copper rebounded higher on Thursday, due to signs that trade tensions have eased, copper prices fell into a bear market earlier, the first time since November 2016.

The most active September copper contract on COMEX rose 5.65 cents, or 2.2%, and settled at $2.6165 a pound.

In August, the copper contract also closed up 5.65 cents or 2.2%, and the settlement price was reported at 2.6135 US dollars per pound, which reversed the trend of four consecutive days of decline. Copper prices have fallen 21% from their four-year highs in June, fearing that trade protection mechanisms will slow global economic growth and hit demand for raw materials for the construction and manufacturing industries.

However, the Sino-US trade impasse seems to have made some breakthroughs on Thursday, and the two sides will hold lower-level consultations on trade issues later this month.

Copper and other base metals are very sensitive to China’s weak economic signals, and China’s demand for copper accounts for about half of global copper demand.

Analysts said that after the price of copper fell below the key technical level, selling accelerated, and some people expect that the latest trade news will make the copper market continue to fluctuate significantly.

Xiao Fu, head of commodities research at BOCI Global Commodities, said: “Some people think that selling is not yet mature, but whether the copper is oversold, these factors may continue to sell for a few days or weeks.”

The dollar weakened on Thursday and supported the copper price. Copper is denominated in US dollars. When the US dollar weakens, copper prices become relatively more affordable than investors holding non-US dollar currencies, attracting such investors to buy.

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August 15 LME Metal Review

London August 15 news, LME base metals futures fell sharply on Wednesday, as the market worried that the global economic growth prospects and demand were hit by trade, political tensions and the dollar.

At 17:00 on August 15th, London time (00:00 on August 16th, Beijing time), three-month copper fell 4% to $5,801 per ton, and the contract hit a 15-month low of $5,773 per ton.

Commerzbank analyst Eugen Weinberg said, “Most of the increase in metal demand is coming to emerging markets, and now market participants have questioned this.”

“The slowdown in China’s economic growth has been going on for some time, and the overall impact of the US tariff on Chinese goods imports has not yet been seen. The current price seems attractive, but it does not rule out further market down.”

Although China’s January-July trade data shows that China’s imports are limited, analysts expect data to deteriorate in the coming months.

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According to data released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the growth rate of China’s fixed asset investment slowed to 5.5% in the first seven months, and the slowdown exceeded expectations, highlighting weak domestic demand and corporate confidence in the context of slowing trade with the US. Frustrated.

In July, the added value of China’s industrial enterprises above designated size increased by 6% year-on-year, which was the same as that in June, but the growth rate was lower than market expectations.

US President Trump provoked a trade war that has led several countries to launch tit-for-tat trade measures against the United States.

In the past week, the Turkish lira has fallen sharply to a record low, which has led to global market turmoil.

The market focus returned to the impact of the Turkish lira’s plunge on more emerging markets, causing global stock markets to fall and the dollar to rise. Investors are also concerned about the level of insurance in the European banking industry in Turkey and are selling off emerging market assets.

The US dollar index rose above 96.9, the first time in June 2017.

A higher dollar means that dollar-denominated commodity prices become more expensive for investors holding other currencies.

Neil Wilson, senior market analyst at, said, “It is hard to believe that the Turkish authorities are prepared to take some sensible monetary and fiscal measures to deal with the crisis.”

The world’s largest copper mine, the Chilean Escondida union, said on Wednesday that union members would look at the latest labor contract proposal from BHP Billiton (BHP) to avoid planned strikes.

Prior to this, the two sides conducted a six-day negotiation after the government intervened to avoid repeating the mistakes of the 44-day strike last year. At that time, the global copper market was severely affected and dragged Chile’s economic growth.

The union said on Tuesday that some key issues have been agreed with the company, but it will take another day to solve other problems.

ING said in a report, “The market has already predicted that the mine will have a strike action, but it seems that the negotiations between the labor and management sides have made progress.”

Three-month aluminum closed down 2.2% at $2,025 a tonne.

Three-month zinc fell 6.3% to $2,300 a tonne, and the contract hit $2,291 per tonne, the lowest since October 2016.

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Three-month lead plummeted 7.1% to $1,927 a tonne, the biggest one-day drop in about seven years. The intraday contract fell to a low of $1,919.50 per tonne since October 2016.

Three-month nickel fell 4.3% to $12,850 a tonne, the lowest level in six months.

Three-month tin closed down 3.2% at $18,405 per tonne.